Aida In Marketing With Examples

An analytical test for digital marketing is an important tool for the marketers, who want to know about their prospects. If your website is having a good number of visitors, but is failing to convert them into customers then conducting an analytical test will help you identify where your sales have stopped and what are the things that hinder your company from reaching its goals.

In this guide, we review the aspects of Aida In Marketing With Examples, aida model in digital marketing, importance of aida model in advertising, and What is the AIDA model of Coca Cola?

Aida In Marketing With Examples

Digital marketing is a process of promoting your brand or product online. Digital marketing can take the form of paid adverts, search engine optimisation (SEO), social media, email marketing and many other forms, all aiming to help your website get noticed by potential customers. Digital Marketing gives you the flexibility and reach to promote your company’s products and services within budget constraints and time limits. The digital world has made way for new innovations in terms of creating awareness about products/services among target audience as well as gathering information about them through different channels such as websites/blogs/social media etc.

Why is SEO important for digital marketing?

  • SEO helps your website to rank higher in search engines.
  • SEO helps you to attract more visitors to your website.
  • SEO helps you to increase your online visibility.
  • SEO helps you to increase the number of leads (potential customers) that come back and buy from your business website regularly

What are the benefits of SEO?

  • You get more traffic to your website
  • You get more leads from your website
  • You get more sales from your website
  • You get more customers from your website

What are the types of SEO?

SEO is divided into two main types: On-page SEO and Off-page SEO.

On-page SEO refers to the onsite optimization of your website, including how you structure content, what keywords are used (keyword research), internal linking structure and more.

Off-page SEO refers to everything that happens outside of your website. This includes link building, social media marketing and other forms of outreach.

What is canonical URL in SEO?

If you are not aware of the term “canonical URL”, it is one of the most important things that you should know about SEO.

It is a single URL that is used to represent up to hundreds of other URLs on your website. This helps search engines understand and index your website in a better way.

The main aim behind using canonical URL’s is to avoid duplicate content as well as provide unique information to search engines so they can rank your site accordingly.

What is LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) and what is its use in SEO?

Latent semantic indexing (LSI) is an important search engine optimization strategy that helps to improve the relevance of search results. LSI is a type of analysis that identifies synonyms within text, and it can be used for both natural language processing (NLP) and information retrieval.

The purpose of LSI is to ensure that your website ranks highly in Google and Bing’s SERPs so that you get more traffic from organic searches. The goal with LSI is not only to achieve better rankings on Google, but also Bing as well as other engines like Yahoo!, Baidu or Yandex.

How do you check backlinks in Google?

It is important to check backlinks in Google, Bing and Yahoo. Here are the links to check:

  • http://www.google.com/webmasters/tools/bulk-check-links
  • https://www.bing.com/toolbox/#link-explorer
  • http://www.yahoo.com/r/search?p=site%3Dbacklinkchecker&ei=UTF-8&fr=top_ga1_sa&xargs=-IEsW7Log0kb0QXYE9BQLsAeHZKtLuqwN3gYl2zCvA&PWcdpOPgFhT9RpkFvf1VnPaGsGmTsPV7KjnpLZAyQmXuUiJdkiXdj6l5cLZQdYCy5CdnujOukVLz16Ce0ML0AmKjTr6oX4G09Lk8CPZgwIHzRdxlvaSxMxemFhOqI3aafj9Q4h82LMthiyHNwNfYg==

How many types of keywords are there in Google Adwords?

There are five types of keywords in Google Adwords:

  • Keyword Research – The first step to all keyword optimization is finding out what people are searching for. This requires an understanding of your audience and what they’re looking for when they use the internet. It also requires research into your business’s competitors, so you can identify gaps in their strategies that can be filled by yours.
  • Keyword Analysis – After finding out which words people search for, it’s important to analyze their behavior and figure out whether or not they’re actually interested in buying something related to those terms. You may find that some searches aren’t worth optimizing, while others have potential but aren’t being used often enough yet—and still others may actually be sending a lot of traffic but don’t convert well because they’re too generic (e.g., “women’s clothing”).
  • Keyword Strategy – After analyzing the data from keyword research and analysis, you’ll need a plan as far as how many keywords each campaign should target (or how much money will go toward each one), which ones should get more attention than others based on their conversion rates or click-through rates (CTR), and so on—a good strategy will take these factors into consideration along with other considerations like budget limits.”

How should one optimize a landing page for better RoI?

  • Optimize the landing page for the target audience
  • Use keywords in the title and meta description
  • Use a call to action button
  • Use relevant images
  • Use a good headline
  • Use a clear navigation

What is the role of Analytics in Digital Marketing and why it is necessary for companies to be aware about analytics?

  • Analytics is the process of collecting, analyzing and reporting data.
  • It provides a 360 view of your business to help you understand the behavior of customers, optimize business processes and make decisions.
  • It helps companies to improve their marketing strategy and increase their sales.

aida model in digital marketing

Where does the AIDA model originate from?

The AIDA model was invented by advertising strategist Elmo Lewis way back in 1898 and was initially intended as a multi-stage model for the perfect sales talk. It later also came into play in marketing, where it is regarded as a pre-sales model based on the assumption that brand perception can be influenced through advertising measures – and therefore, purchasing decisions are direct responses to stimuli communicated by advertising.

The AIDA model in marketing

According to the AIDA model, customers pass through four stages along the customer journey before they take action and purchase or use a product or service. Each letter of the acronym stands for one of these stages:

For (potential) customers to actually engage with a brand’s ads, their attention first needs to be attracted – for example by asking a provocative question or advertising special offers or new products. Depending on the medium of the ad, eye-catching colors and bold text (for printed material) or a louder volume (for TV or radio ads) can also be effective ways to gain attention.

After capturing the attention of consumers, the second stage is about generating and maintaining interest. The aim is for users to connect with the ad and read or watch it all the way through. To achieve that goal, it’s important to address the problems and challenges of the target group. Customers must feel as though the advertising message is not only striking, but also relevant to them.

After capturing the attention of consumers, the second stage is about generating and maintaining interest. The aim is for users to connect with the ad and read or watch it all the way through. To achieve that goal, it’s important to address the problems and challenges of the target group. Customers must feel as though the advertising message is not only striking, but also relevant to them.

After capturing the attention of consumers, the second stage is about generating and maintaining interest. The aim is for users to connect with the ad and read or watch it all the way through. To achieve that goal, it’s important to address the problems and challenges of the target group. Customers must feel as though the advertising message is not only striking, but also relevant to them.

The particular advantages of the AIDA model

More than 100 years have now passed since the AIDA model was first formulated. So it’s more than justifiable to question how applicable the AIDA model still is in today’s media world.

The main advantage of the AIDA model is its simplicity. The straightforward design makes the model timeless and thus it can still be used nowadays. For example, if marketers want to optimize the online presence of their brand, they can use the AIDA model as a checklist to identify potential weaknesses. Based on the four stages of the AIDA model, they can ask questions like:

In actuality, how relevant is the AIDA model still today?

Advertising must stand out, be appropriate for the target group, and stay in consumers’ minds. In that respect, the AIDA model remains apt today. But how effective is it still these days, when it’s no longer just about simply mapping old basics? After all, our consumer and advertising consumption behavior has changed dramatically since the AIDA model was created in 1898. In terms of its applicability to daily digital business, critics of the AIDA model fault the following, among other aspects:

The AIDA model – good as a basis but no magic formula for perfect ads

The AIDA model offers an approach to explain how advertising steers brand choice, but it is by no means a universally applicable principle. If you’re looking for a way to drive your business further forward, it’s therefore worth looking closely at the target group instead. The better you know and understand your customers, the more likely you will reach them via precisely the method and channels that promise the greatest advertising impact. So: get to know your target group, take it seriously, and show your customers how much you care about their needs!

importance of aida model in advertising

The aim of advertising is to encourage consumers to buy or use what your company is offering. According to the AIDA model, a potential customer goes through four phases when deciding whether to buy a product and these correlate to the four phases of the AIDA model. The acronym stands for:

It therefore marks four objectives of strategic communication measures within the marketing framework.

The development of the AIDA model can be traced back to the American advertising advocate, E. St. Elmo Lewis. In 1898, he formulated the three-part formula; attract attention, maintain interest, create desire. Later, he added a new phase called get action.

Originally developed for structuring sales negotiations, Lewis’ formula was soon applied in all areas of marketing. Even today, AIDA is one of the best-known models of advertising research. The model is an integral part of curricula in schools and universities and is still used as a rule of thumb in the advertising practice for designing web resources and analyzing them. Even though the model is well-known, its significance is often disputed.

How does the AIDA model work?

Assuming that brand awareness mostly takes place through advertising and marketing measures, the AIDA model (also known as AIDA formula, AIDA concept, AIDA principle, or AIDA schema) offers explanatory approaches, as to how advertising and other communication policies are involved in the brand selection.

According to the AIDA model, advertisers have to achieve four communication goals to guide potential customers from the stage when they are first aware of a product, and encourage them to make their way to the purchasing stage. The AIDA approach therefore belongs to the group of hierarchical advertising models, based on a linear sequential process of the buying decision process, in which customers go through a series of cognitive and affective stages, which culminate in a purchase.

A – Attract attention

Attention, please! – for an advertising message to be displayed to a potential customer, the advertiser must first attract the target group’s attention. The first phase of the AIDA model is to initiate the activation, perception, and emotional process. To this end, advertising works with various strategies that relate to the content of an advertising message, presentation, or placement.

As a rule, content that attracts attention usually contains new, contradictory, or provocative information:

Only at Walmart: square melons!

Trader Joe’s apples: $1 per kilo!

Which supermarket has the most exciting offer? The reader’s curiosity plays a decisive role here. This can also be fueled by the omission of information.

An attractive layout should ensure that your advertisement has a positive effect on potential customers e.g. by using graphic design elements. An example is a festival poster where the main headliner is emphasized in bold to make it eye catching. The lesser known artists are written in a smaller font underneath. Display advertising gets your attention when it changes, moves, or flashes. You must not overdo it, though, as this can lead to the target group becoming overwhelmed and annoyed by your advertising.

Advertisers make use of auditory elements on TV, radio, or online and are quite subtle with how they achieve it. In almost all ad-supported audiovisual media, short advertisements are played much louder than the actual show. This is to ensure that it catches the viewer’s attention. These ads are often accompanied by catchy jingles or current pop songs.

Some advertisers also revert to old-fashioned methods to lure customers in, for example by using smells so their business is associated with a positive memory. This doesn’t work all the time, but bakeries and confectioners can definitely benefit.

Key stimulus has a specific function in advertising. Certain stimulus patterns are particularly good at catching a person’s attention and awakening their senses. These include, for example, eyes, faces, cute things, and eroticism (hence the phrase ‘sex sells’). For example, a potential customer might just click on an ad banner for Bluetooth headphones because they find the model attractive.

I – Maintain interest

Once you’ve attracted a customer’s attention, the next step is to get them interested and sustain this interest. In this phase of the decision-making process, products and brands are presented, their benefits are emphasized, usage scenarios are shown, and the various ways to purchase the product are introduced – in the best case, from the point of view of the customer.

The advertising goal of the second phase of the AIDA model is achieved when the customer starts engaging with the ads and is interested in the products or services that you’re offering. However, unlike during Lewis’ time, advertisers now have so many more possibilities to get the target group’s interest.

Advertisers will get especially far in the second phase of the AIDA model when they know what the target group is interested in, what’s important to them, what needs they have, and what problems they want to have solved. Modern web analysis tools provide online store operators with detailed information about users’ surfing behavior, enabling them to determine their current status regarding the different phases of the AIDA model or other marketing models – and then react appropriately.

For example, a potential customer, who continues to visit a website and reads up on the information about the battery life of Bluetooth headphones, is probably planning to get some in the near future.

D – Create desire

In the third phase of the AIDA model, the consumer’s general interest develops into a concrete purchasing intent. This is the time to display the models you offer in your online store so that the customer can see what the different options are. Explain how your models are cheaper or look better than the competitor’s model.

In this phase, advertising measures offer information, which emphasizes the benefits of their own products and brands against competitors’ products. The aim is to make the target group see the company in a positive light as well as its brands, products, and services.

A – Get action

If advertisers have succeeded in creating a demand for specific products or services for the target group, this should lead to an action in the final phase of the AIDA model, which is that the interested party should ultimately buy the advertised product or use the offered service.

Advertising, which aims to initiate actions, should include a call-to-action. Examples of some classic calls to action are:

Order Bluetooth headphones now!

Simply call for a free quote!

Calls to action are sometimes accompanied by time constraints, which aim to put the potential buyer under pressure so they are more likely to buy.

Bluetooth headphones – bargain price only available today.

Order Bluetooth headphones online now and save 20%.

Limited edition. For a short time only.

If you promise customers security or additional services, it may increase the probability of them making a purchase.

                … order a trial subscription.

                Buy one get one free.

                10 % discount on your first purchase.

                Now with free return shipping.

                Double the data volume with a new contract.

The AIDA model in practice

Models are used in marketing to illustrate processes. The aim is to develop approaches that can be used to optimize processes. Hierarchical advertising models, such as the AIDA formula, show the development that customers experience as part of the purchasing decision-making process. Each phase is characterized by other requirements that must be taken into account when designing advertising campaigns.

Within the AIDA model, ads act as stimuli, which are supposed to start the purchasing decision. It is therefore a stimulus-reaction scheme. Consumers that pass through the stages of the AIDA model, pass through a cognitive stage as well as an affective processing stage. Basically, the purchasing decision-making process can be reduced to three partial steps: cognition (C), affact (A), and behavior (B), which is referred to as the marketing literature with thinking, feeling, and acting formulas.

The AIDA model looks like an upturned funnel. This illustrates an essential aspect of the hierarchical marketing model. The number of potential customers decreases throughout the purchasing decision process, so that each stage gets smaller. This is known as the purchase funnel.

The purchase funnel shows that only a part of the planned target group can be encouraged by advertisements to take the next step. Advertising that is broadcasted via mass media generally has an enormous reach, but only part of the numerous addressees will be interested in what the advertised company is offering, and even fewer people will be interested enough to actually make a purchase.

In practice, the model gives advertisers a kind of checklist, which can be used to analyze and optimize communication measures in the context of advertising, sales talks, presentations, and moderation.

This formula is useful for owners of online stores to check whether all aspects of an optimal purchasing decision-making process were considered during the product presentation. Possible questions could be:

The list of possible checking points based on the AIDA formula is therefore not yet exhausted.

Criticism of the AIDA model

Since the development of the AIDA model more than a hundred years ago, the understanding of advertising and marketing communication has changed fundamentally with the digital revolution. Nonetheless, there are hardly any marketing specialist books that don’t mention AIDA.

The secret to success is simplicity. This makes it possible to use this model in many areas of marketing. Basically, single-level communication measures (press advertising, B2C telephone sales) can be better illustrated than multi-level processes used in dialog-oriented media.

Reducing the decision-making process to a simple stimulus-response scheme is considered outdated. Critics have also pointed out that the decision to buy is based on a variety of other influencing factors, such as availability, pricing, advice, customer satisfaction, and recommendations. The influence of emotional aspects on the perception of the brand is also barely taken into account in the AIDA model.

Since the 1990s, however, emotion research has been recognized in the framework of neuromarketing and delivers important insights for the design, analysis, and optimization of advertising methods.

The AIDA model should therefore be viewed as what it is: a simplified formula that lays the foundation for systematic consideration of the buying decision-making process after being created by Lewis more than 100 years ago. Over the years, this has been adapted several times, modified, and extended to current circumstances.

AIDA model extensions

A major deficiency of the AIDA model is that the purchase decision process is not considered anymore after it ends i.e. when a customer makes a purchase. All post-purchase effects such as satisfaction, dissatisfaction, customer ratings, and recommendations remain unaffected.

More approaches have been developed based on the AIDA formula and these have extended the basic model by additional phases as well as taking the role of modern, dialog-oriented media (e.g. social media and online communities) into account. Established models include the hierarchy of effects model, the DAGMAR formular, the AIDA model, and AISDALSLove.

The hierarchy of effects model

The hierarchy of effects model, created by Lavidge and Steiner, is also made up of a hierarchical sequence of different advertising effects and breaks the purchasing decision-making process into a total of six stages:

The DAGMAR formula

Based on the AIDA model, the American advertising researcher Russell H. Colley published the so-called DAGMAR formula in 1961. The acronym stands for Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. DAGMAR is also a hierarchical advertising model, based on the assumption that advertising not only needs economic objectives, but also communicative tasks. These can be divided into six areas.

What is the AIDA model of Coca Cola

The aim of advertising is to encourage consumers to buy or use what your company is offering. According to the AIDA model, a potential customer goes through four phases when deciding whether to buy a product and these correlate to the four phases of the AIDA model. The acronym stands for:

It therefore marks four objectives of strategic communication measures within the marketing framework.

The development of the AIDA model can be traced back to the American advertising advocate, E. St. Elmo Lewis. In 1898, he formulated the three-part formula; attract attention, maintain interest, create desire. Later, he added a new phase called get action.

Originally developed for structuring sales negotiations, Lewis’ formula was soon applied in all areas of marketing. Even today, AIDA is one of the best-known models of advertising research. The model is an integral part of curricula in schools and universities and is still used as a rule of thumb in the advertising practice for designing web resources and analyzing them. Even though the model is well-known, its significance is often disputed.

How does the AIDA model work?

Assuming that brand awareness mostly takes place through advertising and marketing measures, the AIDA model (also known as AIDA formula, AIDA concept, AIDA principle, or AIDA schema) offers explanatory approaches, as to how advertising and other communication policies are involved in the brand selection.

According to the AIDA model, advertisers have to achieve four communication goals to guide potential customers from the stage when they are first aware of a product, and encourage them to make their way to the purchasing stage. The AIDA approach therefore belongs to the group of hierarchical advertising models, based on a linear sequential process of the buying decision process, in which customers go through a series of cognitive and affective stages, which culminate in a purchase.

A – Attract attention

Attention, please! – for an advertising message to be displayed to a potential customer, the advertiser must first attract the target group’s attention. The first phase of the AIDA model is to initiate the activation, perception, and emotional process. To this end, advertising works with various strategies that relate to the content of an advertising message, presentation, or placement.

As a rule, content that attracts attention usually contains new, contradictory, or provocative information:

Only at Walmart: square melons!

Trader Joe’s apples: $1 per kilo!

Which supermarket has the most exciting offer? The reader’s curiosity plays a decisive role here. This can also be fueled by the omission of information.

An attractive layout should ensure that your advertisement has a positive effect on potential customers e.g. by using graphic design elements. An example is a festival poster where the main headliner is emphasized in bold to make it eye catching. The lesser known artists are written in a smaller font underneath. Display advertising gets your attention when it changes, moves, or flashes. You must not overdo it, though, as this can lead to the target group becoming overwhelmed and annoyed by your advertising.

Advertisers make use of auditory elements on TV, radio, or online and are quite subtle with how they achieve it. In almost all ad-supported audiovisual media, short advertisements are played much louder than the actual show. This is to ensure that it catches the viewer’s attention. These ads are often accompanied by catchy jingles or current pop songs.

Some advertisers also revert to old-fashioned methods to lure customers in, for example by using smells so their business is associated with a positive memory. This doesn’t work all the time, but bakeries and confectioners can definitely benefit.

Key stimulus has a specific function in advertising. Certain stimulus patterns are particularly good at catching a person’s attention and awakening their senses. These include, for example, eyes, faces, cute things, and eroticism (hence the phrase ‘sex sells’). For example, a potential customer might just click on an ad banner for Bluetooth headphones because they find the model attractive.

I – Maintain interest

Once you’ve attracted a customer’s attention, the next step is to get them interested and sustain this interest. In this phase of the decision-making process, products and brands are presented, their benefits are emphasized, usage scenarios are shown, and the various ways to purchase the product are introduced – in the best case, from the point of view of the customer.

The advertising goal of the second phase of the AIDA model is achieved when the customer starts engaging with the ads and is interested in the products or services that you’re offering. However, unlike during Lewis’ time, advertisers now have so many more possibilities to get the target group’s interest.

Advertisers will get especially far in the second phase of the AIDA model when they know what the target group is interested in, what’s important to them, what needs they have, and what problems they want to have solved. Modern web analysis tools provide online store operators with detailed information about users’ surfing behavior, enabling them to determine their current status regarding the different phases of the AIDA model or other marketing models – and then react appropriately.

For example, a potential customer, who continues to visit a website and reads up on the information about the battery life of Bluetooth headphones, is probably planning to get some in the near future.

D – Create desire

In the third phase of the AIDA model, the consumer’s general interest develops into a concrete purchasing intent. This is the time to display the models you offer in your online store so that the customer can see what the different options are. Explain how your models are cheaper or look better than the competitor’s model.

In this phase, advertising measures offer information, which emphasizes the benefits of their own products and brands against competitors’ products. The aim is to make the target group see the company in a positive light as well as its brands, products, and services.

A – Get action

If advertisers have succeeded in creating a demand for specific products or services for the target group, this should lead to an action in the final phase of the AIDA model, which is that the interested party should ultimately buy the advertised product or use the offered service.

Advertising, which aims to initiate actions, should include a call-to-action. Examples of some classic calls to action are:

Order Bluetooth headphones now!

Simply call for a free quote!

Calls to action are sometimes accompanied by time constraints, which aim to put the potential buyer under pressure so they are more likely to buy.

Bluetooth headphones – bargain price only available today.

Order Bluetooth headphones online now and save 20%.

Limited edition. For a short time only.

If you promise customers security or additional services, it may increase the probability of them making a purchase.

                … order a trial subscription.

                Buy one get one free.

                10 % discount on your first purchase.

                Now with free return shipping.

                Double the data volume with a new contract.

The AIDA model in practice

Models are used in marketing to illustrate processes. The aim is to develop approaches that can be used to optimize processes. Hierarchical advertising models, such as the AIDA formula, show the development that customers experience as part of the purchasing decision-making process. Each phase is characterized by other requirements that must be taken into account when designing advertising campaigns.

Within the AIDA model, ads act as stimuli, which are supposed to start the purchasing decision. It is therefore a stimulus-reaction scheme. Consumers that pass through the stages of the AIDA model, pass through a cognitive stage as well as an affective processing stage. Basically, the purchasing decision-making process can be reduced to three partial steps: cognition (C), affact (A), and behavior (B), which is referred to as the marketing literature with thinking, feeling, and acting formulas.

The AIDA model looks like an upturned funnel. This illustrates an essential aspect of the hierarchical marketing model. The number of potential customers decreases throughout the purchasing decision process, so that each stage gets smaller. This is known as the purchase funnel.

The purchase funnel shows that only a part of the planned target group can be encouraged by advertisements to take the next step. Advertising that is broadcasted via mass media generally has an enormous reach, but only part of the numerous addressees will be interested in what the advertised company is offering, and even fewer people will be interested enough to actually make a purchase.

In practice, the model gives advertisers a kind of checklist, which can be used to analyze and optimize communication measures in the context of advertising, sales talks, presentations, and moderation.

This formula is useful for owners of online stores to check whether all aspects of an optimal purchasing decision-making process were considered during the product presentation. Possible questions could be:

The list of possible checking points based on the AIDA formula is therefore not yet exhausted.

Criticism of the AIDA model

Since the development of the AIDA model more than a hundred years ago, the understanding of advertising and marketing communication has changed fundamentally with the digital revolution. Nonetheless, there are hardly any marketing specialist books that don’t mention AIDA.

The secret to success is simplicity. This makes it possible to use this model in many areas of marketing. Basically, single-level communication measures (press advertising, B2C telephone sales) can be better illustrated than multi-level processes used in dialog-oriented media.

Reducing the decision-making process to a simple stimulus-response scheme is considered outdated. Critics have also pointed out that the decision to buy is based on a variety of other influencing factors, such as availability, pricing, advice, customer satisfaction, and recommendations. The influence of emotional aspects on the perception of the brand is also barely taken into account in the AIDA model.

Since the 1990s, however, emotion research has been recognized in the framework of neuromarketing and delivers important insights for the design, analysis, and optimization of advertising methods.

The AIDA model should therefore be viewed as what it is: a simplified formula that lays the foundation for systematic consideration of the buying decision-making process after being created by Lewis more than 100 years ago. Over the years, this has been adapted several times, modified, and extended to current circumstances.

AIDA model extensions

A major deficiency of the AIDA model is that the purchase decision process is not considered anymore after it ends i.e. when a customer makes a purchase. All post-purchase effects such as satisfaction, dissatisfaction, customer ratings, and recommendations remain unaffected.

More approaches have been developed based on the AIDA formula and these have extended the basic model by additional phases as well as taking the role of modern, dialog-oriented media (e.g. social media and online communities) into account. Established models include the hierarchy of effects model, the DAGMAR formular, the AIDA model, and AISDALSLove.

The hierarchy of effects model

The hierarchy of effects model, created by Lavidge and Steiner, is also made up of a hierarchical sequence of different advertising effects and breaks the purchasing decision-making process into a total of six stages:

The DAGMAR formula

Based on the AIDA model, the American advertising researcher Russell H. Colley published the so-called DAGMAR formula in 1961. The acronym stands for Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. DAGMAR is also a hierarchical advertising model, based on the assumption that advertising not only needs economic objectives, but also communicative tasks. These can be divided into six areas.

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