Laravel Symbolic Link Shared Hosting

We provide Laravel shared hosting to our customers. Laravel is a high-performance PHP web application framework with the ability to be easily extended through plug ins and the use of OOP (object oriented programming) design pattern. This allows you even more freedom in your development by reusing code from other projects or third party open source plugins, allowing you to save money while also gaining functionality.

Laravel Symbolic Link Shared Hosting

Laravel is a free and open-source PHP web framework,[3] created by Taylor Otwell and intended for the development of web applications following the model–view–controller (MVC) architectural pattern and based on Symfony. Some of the features of Laravel are a modular packaging system with a dedicated dependency manager, different ways for accessing relational databases, utilities that aid in application deployment and maintenance, and its orientation toward syntactic sugar.[4][5]: 2, 5–9 [6][7]

The source code of Laravel is hosted on GitHub and licensed under the terms of MIT License.[8]

Contents
1 History
1.1 Release history
2 Features
2.1 First-party packages
3 Conferences
4 See also
5 References
6 Further reading

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Performing Basic Setup

Now that your new server is up and running, it’s time to do some basic setup. First, use SSH with the server IP address to log in as the root user.

ssh [email protected]

You can find the server’s IP address on the dashboard or inside the server details. Once you’re inside the server, the first thing to do is create a new non-root user.

By default, every server comes with the root user only. The root user, as you may already know, is very mighty. If someone manages to hack your server and logs in as the root user, the hacker can wreak havoc. Disabling login for the root user can prevent such mishaps.

Also, logging in using a key-pair is more secure than logging in using a password. So, disabling logging in using a password should be disabled for all users.

To create a new user from the terminal, execute the following command inside your server:

adduser nonroot

The name nonroot can be anything you want. I used nonroot as the name to make the fact clear that this is a non-root user. The adduser program will ask for a password and several other information. Put a strong password and leave the others empty.

After creating the user, you’ll have to add this new user to the sudo group. Otherwise, the nonroot user will be unable to execute commands using sudo.

usermod -aG sudo nonroot

In this command, sudo is the group name, and nonroot is the username. Now, if you try to log into this account, you’ll face a permission denied error.

Deploying Laravel Applications on Virtual Private Servers

It happens because most of the VPS providers disable login using a password when you add an SSH key to the server, and you haven’t configured the new user to use SSH key-pairs. One easy way to fix this is to copy the content of /root/.ssh directory to the /home/nonroot/.ssh directory. You can use the rsync program to do this.

rsync --archive --chown=nonroot:nonroot /root/.ssh /home/nonroot

The –archive option for rsync copies directories recursively preserving symbolic links, user and group ownership, and timestamps. The –chown option sets the nonroot user as the owner in the destination. Now you should be able to log in as the new user using SSH.

After logging in as a non-root user, you should update the operating system, including all the installed programs on the server. To do so, execute the following command:

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y && sudo apt dist-upgrade -y

Downloading and installing the updates will take a few minutes. During this process, if you see a screen titled “Configuring openssh-server” asking about some file changes, select the “keep the local version currently installed” option and press enter.

Deploying Laravel Applications on Virtual Private Servers

After the update process finishes, reboot the server by executing the sudo reboot command. Wait a few minutes for the server to boot again and log back in as a non-root user.

Deploying Code on the Server

After completing the basic setups, the next thing you’ll tackle is deploying code on the server. I’ve seen people cloning the repository somewhere on the production server and logging into the server to perform a pull whenever there are some new changes to the code.

There is a much better way of doing this. Instead of logging into the server to perform a pull, you can use the server itself as a repository and push code directly to the server. You can also automate the post-deployment steps like installing dependencies, running the migrations, and so on, which will make the Laravel deploy to server an effortless action. But before doing all these, you’ll first have to install PHP and Composer on the server.

Installing PHP

You can find a list of PHP packages required by Laravel on the official docs. To install all these packages, execute the following command on your server:

sudo apt install php7.4-fpm php7.4-bcmath php7.4-json php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml -y

Depending on whether you’re using MySQL or PostgreSQL, or SQLite in your project, you’ll have to install one of the following packages:

sudo apt install php7.4-mysql php7.4-pgsql php7.4-sqlite3 -y

The following package provides support for the Redis in-memory databases:

sudo apt install php7.4-redis

Apart from these packages, you’ll also need php-curl, php-zip, zip, unzip, and curl utilities.

sudo apt install zip unzip php7.4-zip curl php7.4-curl -y

The question bank project uses MySQL as its database system and Redis for caching and running queues, so you’ll have to install the php7.4-mysql and the php7.4-redis packages.

Depending on the project, you may have to install more PHP packages. Projects that work images, for example, usually depend on the php-gd package. Also, you don’t have to mention the PHP version with every package name. If you don’t specify a version number, APT will automatically install whatever is the latest.

At the writing of this article, PHP 7.4 is the latest one on Ubuntu’s package repositories but considering that the question board project requires PHP 7.4 and PHP 8 may become the default in the future, I’ve specified the version number in this article.

Installing Composer

After installing PHP and all the required packages on the server, now you’re ready to install Composer. To do so, navigate to the official composer download page and follow the command-line installation instructions or execute the following commands:

php -r "copy('https://getcomposer.org/installer', 'composer-setup.php');"
sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir /usr/local/bin --filename composer
php -r "unlink('composer-setup.php');"

Now that you’ve installed both PHP and Composer on your server, you’re ready to configure the automated deployment of your code.

Deploying Code Using Git

For automating code deployment on the server, log in as a non-root user and create a new directory under the /home/nonroot directory. You’ll use this directory as the repository and push production code to it.

mkdir -p /home/nonroot/repo/question-board.git

The -p option to the mkdir command will create any nonexistent parent repository. Next, cd into the newly created directory and initialize a new bare git repository.

cd /home/nonroot/repo/question-board.git
git init --bare

A bare is the same as a regular git repository, except it doesn’t have a working tree. The practical usage of such a git repository is as a remote origin. Don’t worry if you don’t understand what I said just now. Things will become lucid as you keep going.

Assuming you’re still inside the /home/nonroot/repo/question-board.git directory, cd inside the hooks subdirectory and create a new file called post-receive.

cd hooks
touch post-receive

Files inside this directory are regular shell scripts that git invokes when some major event happens on a repository. Whenever you push some code, git will wait until all the code has been received and then call the post-receive script.

Assuming you’re still inside the hooks directory, open the post-receive script by executing the following command:

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